Bolani, Afghanistan. This fried bread stuffed with potatoes is often sold by Afghan street vendors.
Lavash, Armenia. This bread is so central to Armenia’s culture that it’s been designated UNESCO Intangible Heritage.
Damper bread, Australia. This bread is a simple blend of water, flour and salt that can be cooked quickly over a fire.
Luchi, Bangladesh. This golden flatbread is a popular choice for breakfast in Bangladesh, but you can also find the puffy breads at Dhaka sidewalk stalls and home kitchens.
Pão de queijo, Brazil. The cassava at the base of this treat has enough naturally occurring cyanide to kill a human being. After careful treatment, it’s become part of a popular cheesy bread roll.
Montreal bagels, Canada. Smaller than their New York counterparts, these bagels are made with dough mixed with egg and honey, and the hand-shaped rings are boiled in honey water before baking.
Marraqueta, Chile. Split into four lobes, the marraqueta has a pale, fluffy interior and a crispy exterior.
Shaobing, China. Split open the flaky crust to reveal 18 or more tender layers and sweet or savory fillings.
Pan Cubano, Cuba. Melted lard lends a hint of savory flavor to loaves of pan Cubano, the base for Cuban sandwiches thought to have been invented in Florida.
Libba, Egypt. Bedouin tribes travel with their sacks of flour through Egypt’s vast deserts, making each day’s bread in the camp fire.
Pupusas, El Salvador. This griddled corn bread with a variety of fillings is both a beloved snack and a national icon.
Injera, Ethiopia. Made from an ancient grain called teff, this Ethiopian bread is the perfect foil for the country’s rich sauces and stews.
Baguette, France. The baguette is a relatively recent invention. According to Paris food historian Jim Chevallier, long, narrow breads similar to modern baguettes gained prominence in the 19th century.
Khachapuri, Georgia. This savory flatbread starts with dough that’s pinched into a boat-shaped cradle and baked with a generous filling of egg and cheese.
Pumpernickel, Germany. Pure rye flour lends these iconic north German loaves impressive heft, and the most traditional versions are baked in a warm, steamy oven for up to 24 hours.
Pai bao, Hong Kong. This bread benefits from a technique known as the Tangzhong method. When mixing the dough, bakers add a small amount of cooked flour and water, which results in a loaf that retains moisture for days.
Dökkt rúgbrauð, Iceland. The geothermal heat that powers Iceland’s geysers, hot springs and steam vents also provides a natural oven for this slow-baked Icelandic rye bread.
Paratha, India. This whole-wheat Indian treat can be eaten plain or packed with savory fillings.
Roti gambang, Indonesia. Palm sugar and cinnamon lend a light, aromatic sweetness to roti gambang, which is often enjoyed with a cup of tea brewed from Java- or Sumatra-grown leaves.
Sangak, Iran. Eat this flatbread, also called nan-e sangak, on its own, or turn it into an Iranian-style breakfast. Use a piece of sangak to wrap salty cheese and a bundle of aromatic green herbs.
Soda bread, Ireland. With potato crops failing, the Irish started mixing loaves using soft wheat flour, sour milk and baking soda. Now, dense loaves of soda bread are paired with salted Irish butter.
Challah, Israel. Traditionally, challah is any bread used in Jewish ritual, but you’ll still spot plenty of the classic Ashkenazi golden loaves.
Ciabatta, Italy. There’s no better proof that bread is still evolving than the example of ciabatta, an Italian loaf that was only invented in the 1980s.
Bammy bread, Jamaica. Pan-fried cassava cakes are delicious comfort food in Jamaica, where rounds of bammy bread are paired with the island’s fresh seafood.
Kare pan, Japan. This curry bread is rolled in panko before dunking it in the deep-fryer, ensuring a crispy crust and soft, saucy interior.
Taboon bread, Jordan. Bakers in roadside stalls in the capital city of Amman make and stack this classic flatbread into steaming piles.
Roti canai, Malaysia. Roti flatbread may have arrived in Malaysia with Indian immigrants, but the country’s made the flaky, rich bread their own. Try it served with Malaysian dips and curries.
Ħobż tal-Malti, Malta. Classic versions take more than a day to prepare, and were traditionally baked in shared, wood-fired ovens that served as community gathering places.
Tortillas, Mexico. Whether folded into a taco or eaten out of hand, corn tortillas are one of the country’s most universally loved foods. The ground-corn dough is deceptively simple, made from just a few ingredients,
Khobz kesra, Morocco. These low, rounded loaves, often baked at community ovens where women gather, have a slightly crisp exterior.
Fry bread, Navajo Nation. Now a symbol of perseverance and tradition, fry bread was created by the Navajo people using government-provided stores of white flour, lard and sugar.
Tijgerbrood, Netherlands. To create the “Dutch crunch” mottled top of tijgerbrood, bakers spread unbaked loaves of white bread with a soft mixture of rice flour, sesame oil, water and yeast.
Rēwena parāoa, New Zealand. European settlers brought potatoes and wheat to New Zealand, but the indigenous Maori people made the imported ingredients their own with this innovative bread.
Lefse, Norway. This potato flatbread is a favorite at holidays, when there are many hands to roll the soft dough with a grooved pin, then cook it on a hot griddle.
Podplomyk, Poland. Slather a hot round of podplomyk with white cheese and fruit preserves for a delicious use of this unyeasted flatbread.
Broa de milho, Portugal. Corn and buckwheat are stone-milled, sifted and kneaded in a wooden trough for the most traditional version of this hearty peasant bread from northern Portugal.
Karavai, Russia. Bread baking becomes art on Russian holidays, when golden loaves of karavai are decked in dough flowers, animals and swirls. It also plays a starring role at weddings.
Pane carasau, Sardinia, Italy. Crisp-baked sheets of pane carasau are parchment-thin, earning Sardinia’s ancient flatbread a melodic nickname: carta de musica, or sheet music.
Proja, Serbia. Warm squares of Serbian proja, or cornbread, are a favorite accompaniment to the country’s meat stews.
Gyeran-ppang, South Korea. Every loaf of gyeran-ppang has a whole egg baked inside, and the savory-sweet treat can be eaten hot for breakfast or at any other time of day.
Appam, Sri Lanka. A thin, fermented batter of rice flour and coconut milk turns crisp in the bowl-shaped pans used for cooking appam, one of Sri Lanka’s most ubiquitous treats.
Kisra, Sudan and South Sudan. Overnight fermentation lends a delicious tang to this crepe-like flatbread, balancing the mild, earthy flavor of sorghum flour with a tart bite.
Limpa bread, Sweden. Before commercial yeast was available, brewers harvested yeast from batches of beer, passing it off to bakers. That legacy lives on in vörtlimpa, although the light rye now gets acidity from orange juice.
Balep korkun, Tibet. Barley has been a staple on the Tibetan Plateau for thousands of years. While balep korkun is often made with wheat, traditional versions are shaped from tsampa, a roasted barley flour with nutty flavor.
Simit, Turkey. Dredged in sesame seeds and spiraled into rings, portable simit might be Turkey’s ultimate on-the-go snack.
Crumpets, United Kingdom. Yeasted wheat batter bubbles into a spongy cake for this griddled treat, a British favorite when smeared with jam, butter or clotted cream.
Biscuits, United States. Smeared with butter or dripping in gravy, biscuits are one of the United States’ homiest tastes. Part of the secret for soft, fluffy biscuits is in the flour, typically a low-protein flour.
Non, Uzbekistan. The country’s traditional tandoor ovens turn out rounds that vary across regions, from Tashkent’s chewy versions to Samarkand loaves showered in black nigella seeds.
Arepas, Venezuela. Arepas have been made in Venezuela and surrounding regions since long before the arrival of Europeans in South America, and the nourishing corn breads can range from simple to elaborate.
Malawach, Yemen. To make malawach, bakers roll wheat dough into a delicate sheet and fold it over a slick of melted butter. The dough is twisted into a loose topknot, then re-rolled, sending veins of butter through overlapping layers.